The Establishment of Odessos The Town during the Archaic and the Classical Period  /6th 4th century BC/
hall 8
According to an early written record Odessos /nowadays Varna/ was established by migrants from the Asia Minor town of Milet /cont. Miletas/ at the time when Mydia was reigned by czar Astiag the second fourth of 6th century BC. Archaeological excavations confirm the record. This is the period of the Great Greek Colonization.
 The name of the town /Odessos a settlement on water, "Watery"/ is not Greek but of an earlier linguistic origin which suggests the presence of an older village on the same territory. The development of the town was typical for the classical polis town-state, independently governed. In almost no time Odessos becomes one of the most important port and trade centers at the Black Sea. The Thracian tribes of Krobizi populated the vicinity of the town. The imported ceramic vessels found on the territory of the ancient town suggest the most important trends of trade relations. During the first decades they aim mainly to the mother country the town of Milet and the nearby territories on the western coast of Asia Minor but from the early 5th century BC priority was taken by the trade import from Athens.
The Atik black-figured and red-figured vessels decorated the tables of the ancient Odessos citizens. Olive oil and wine have been supplied from various parts of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Discovered are many amphorae vessels for carrying wine on board the ships originating from the isles of Hios, Rhodos, Samos, Lesbos, Tassos, Heraklea Pontiiska and Sione.
An interesting Dionisius scene decorates a red-figured krater vessel from the 4th century BC found in grave in the necropolis of Odessos representing the god Dionosius sitting over his chimation and panther fur surrounded by his suite of maenads and satyrs. A nude Eros presents him with a wreath. On another krater vessel from the same period, also from the necropolis of the town, the goddess of victory Nike is depicted awarding a winner in a competition. He is behind the goddess on horseback just received a wreath as a prize.
 Architectural details /Ionian capitals/ from the 5th century BC suggest the existence of an early temple in the town. This should be the temple of Apollo known from some written records. Initially Apollo was a supreme deity of town. His bynames of Apollo Ietros /a healer, a protector/ and Apollo Delfiniy are quite explicit to his functions in the religious notions of the ancient.
 The contacts of Odessos with the native Thracian population are well expressed by the presence of numerous works of the toreutics metal decorations for horse trappings worked out in the typical for the Thracian art geometrical animal style, bronze and silver earrings, rings, bracelets, fibula and others.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 16 17 18 22 24 25 26 29 32
r c h e a e o l o g i c a l   m u s e u m   V a r n a 1997, 2000; 2002